Farmasi (bahasa Inggris: pharmacy, bahasa Yunani: pharmacon, yang berarti: obat) merupakan salah satu bidang profesional kesehatan yang merupakan kombinasi dari ilmu kesehatan dan ilmu kimia, yang mempunyai tanggung-jawab memastikan efektivitas dan keamanan penggunaan obat. Ruang lingkup dari praktik farmasi termasuk praktik farmasi tradisional seperti peracikan dan penyediaan sediaan obat, serta pelayanan farmasi modern yang berhubungan dengan layanan terhadap pasien (patient care) di antaranya layanan klinik, evaluasi efikasi dan keamanan penggunaan obat, dan penyediaan informasi obat. Kata farmasi berasal dari kata farma (pharma). Farma merupakan istilah yang dipakai pada tahun 1400 - 1600an.
Institusi farmasi Eropa pertama kali berdiri di Trier, Jerman, pada tahun 1241 dan tetap eksis sampai dengan sekarang.
Farmasis (apoteker) merupakan gelar profesional dengan keahlian di bidang farmasi. Farmasis biasa bertugas di institusi-institusi baik pemerintahan maupun swasta seperti badan pengawas obat/makanan, rumah sakit, industri farmasi, industri obat tradisional, apotek, dan di berbagai sarana kesehatan.
Tuesday, 8 December 2015
!t's a talent that every0ne has, yet they th!nk they d0n't. The p0wer 0f !nn0vat!0n. !f y0u've ever marvelled at s0meb0dy's creat!ve pr0wess, guess what, y0u can create and !nn0vate t00. !t just takes t!me. Every0ne !s b0rn creat!ve. The b0x 0f cray0ns !n k!ndergarten were n0t l!m!ted t0 th0se wh0 p0ssessed p0tent!al; because the truth !s, everyb0dy has p0tent!al.
Y0u kn0w h0w l0ng !t t00k t0 learn t0 r!de a b!ke 0r dr!ve 0r t0 never c0mm!t the same m!stake aga!n? !t's the same w!th !nn0vat!0n. !t takes a b!t 0f pract!ce and a l0t 0f t!me bef0re th!s m!nd funct!0n c0mes eas!ly when called. Th!s art!cle w!ll teach y0u a few t!ps 0n h0w t0 br!ng !nn0vat!0n !nt0 y0ur l!fe.
D0n't l!sten t0 what 0ther pe0ple say. F0ll0w the beat 0f y0ur 0wn drum. All0w!ng f0r the !nput 0f 0ther pe0ple w!ll 0nly br!ng cac0ph0ny t0 the mus!c y0u are try!ng t0 make. !f y0u have an 0r!g!nal !dea, d0n't waste y0ur t!me and eff0rt try!ng t0 make pe0ple understand. They w0n't. And the help y0u w!ll pr0bably get c0mes !n the f0rm 0f negat!ve feedback. !f all th0se gen!uses l!stened t0 the!r peers, we w0uld pr0bably st!ll be l!v!ng !n the m!ddle ages.
Spend t!me 0n !t. ! cann0t stress that en0ugh, alth0ugh, please d0 n0t m!stake th!s t!p t0 tell y0u t0 qu!t y0ur day j0b ent!rely. D0 n0t. Th!s !nv0lves s0me tr!cky t!me management but w!th a l!ttle d!sc!pl!ne y0u'll be able t0 squeeze b0th !n.
Exerc!se. Take a walk. Run a m!le 0r tw0. Send all th0se end0rph!ns c0urs!ng thr0ugh y0ur ve!ns. Exerc!s!ng certa!nly clears and relaxes y0ur m!nd and all0ws f0r anyth!ng t0 p0p up.
Rec0rd y0ur dreams. Aren't s0me 0f them just the craz!est th!ngs that y0ur c0nsc!0us m!nd w0uld never have th0ught 0f? !f y0u've had these dreams bef0re, and !'m sure have, th!s 0nly sh0ws y0u the untapped !nn0vat!ve p0wer y0u have ly!ng w!th!n. S0 j0t d0wn th0se n0tes. Th0se dreams may just create an !nn0vat!ve spark !n y0u.
F!nd y0ur 0wn style. Y0u can always tell a Van G0gh fr0m a Mat!sse. Y0u'll kn0w Hem!ngway wr0te s0meth!ng by the ch0!ce 0f w0rds 0n the paper. S0 !t !s the same w!th y0u. Pe0ple w!ll apprec!ate y0ur !nn0vat!0n m0re because !t !s un!quely y0urs and that n0 0ne else w0uld have th0ught 0f what y0u were th!nk!ng. That w!ll let pe0ple see h0w valuable an asset y0u are.
D0n't h!de beh!nd n!fty gadgets 0r t00ls. Y0u d0n't need the m0st expens!ve set 0f pa!nts t0 pr0duce a masterp!ece. The same way w!th wr!t!ng. Y0u d0n't need s0me expens!ve f0unta!n pen and really sm00th paper f0r a bestseller. !n fact, J.K. R0wl!ng wr0te the f!rst b00k 0f the Harry P0tter Ser!es 0n b!ts 0f t!ssue. S0 what !f y0u've g0t an expens!ve SLR camera !f y0u're a crappy ph0t0grapher? Wh0 cares !f y0u've g0t a bl!ng!ng lapt0p !f y0u can't wr!te at all? The art!st actually reduces the number 0f t00ls he has as he gets better at h!s craft: he kn0ws what w0rks and what d0esn't.
N0th!ng w!ll w0rk w!th0ut pass!0n. What wakes y0u up !n the m0rn!ngs? What keeps the flame burn!ng? What !s the 0ne th!ng that y0u'll d!e !f y0u d0n't d0? S0met!mes pe0ple w!th talent are 0vertaken by the pe0ple wh0 want !t m0re. Th!nk the hare and the t0rt0!se. Ellen Degeneres 0nce sa!d that !f y0u're n0t d0!ng s0meth!ng that y0u want t0 d0, then y0u d0n't really want t0 d0 !t. And that's true. S0met!mes y0u just want s0meth!ng s0 bad y0u bec0me a v!rtual unst0ppable. And that !s pass!0n. Pass!0n w!ll keep y0u g0!ng.
D0n't w0rry ab0ut !nsp!rat!0n. Y0u can't f0rce !t; !nsp!rat!0n h!ts when y0u least expect !t t0, f0r th0se unpred!ctable yet !nev!table m0ments y0u sh0uld prepare. An !dea c0uld str!ke y0u 0n the subway, yet alas, y0u p00r unf0rtunate s0ul; y0u have n0 sheet 0f paper t0 scr!bble d0wn a th0ught that c0uld change the w0rld. Av0!d these d!sasters. Have a pen and paper w!th!n y0ur arm's reach at all t!mes.
! h0pe th!s art!cle has helped y0u br!ng m0re !nn0vat!0n !nt0 y0ur l!fe. Keep !n m!nd that y0u're d0!ng these th!ngs f0r y0ur 0wn sat!sfact!0n and n0t anyb0dy else's. But s00n en0ugh they w!ll n0t!ce, and everyth!ng sh0uld sn0wball fr0m there....
Posted by kun Akinari at 19:05
Thursday, 10 September 2015
Alm0st every0ne have heard the h!t s!ngle 'D0n't W0rry, Be Happy' by B0bby McFerr!n. The s0ng has a very catchy way 0f c0nvey!ng !ts message 0f be!ng happy t0 every0ne. B0bby Mcfer!!n's s!mple message surely made a l0t 0f pe0ple by tell!ng them n0t t0 w0rry.
L!v!ng a happy, res!l!ent and 0pt!m!st!c l!fe !s w0nderful, and !s als0 g00d f0r y0ur health. Be!ng happy actually pr0tects y0u fr0m the stresses 0f l!fe. Stress !s l!nked t0 t0p causes 0f death such as heart d!sease, cancer and str0ke.
0ne 0f the better th!ngs ever sa!d !s - 'The 0nly th!ng !n l!fe that w!ll always rema!n the same !s change', and !n 0ur l!fe we have the p0wer t0 make the necessary changes !f we want t0. Even !f we f!nd 0urselves !n an unbearable s!tuat!0n we can always f!nd s0lace !n the kn0wledge that !t t00 w0uld change.
S0c!al netw0rks 0r relat!0nsh!ps are essent!al t0 happ!ness. Pe0ple are d!fferent, accept pe0ple f0r wh0 0r what they are, av0!d clashes, c0nstant arguments, and let g0 0f all k!nds 0f resentments. !f arguments seem unav0!dable st!ll try and make an eff0rt t0 understand the s!tuat!0n and y0u m!ght just get al0ng w!th well w!th
Happ!ness !s actually f0und !n every0ne, !ncreas!ng !t !s a way t0 make a l!fe m0re w0nderful and als0 m0re healthy.
T0 be happy !s relat!vely easy, just dec!de t0 be a happy pers0n. Abraham L!nc0ln 0bserved that m0st pe0ple f0r m0st 0f the t!me can ch00se h0w happy 0r stressed, h0w relaxed 0r tr0ubled, h0w br!ght 0r dull the!r 0utl00k t0 be. The ch0!ce !s s!mple really, ch00se t0 be happy.
There are several ways by wh!ch y0u can d0 th!s.
Be!ng grateful !s a great att!tude. We have s0 much t0 be thankful f0r. Thank the tax! dr!ver f0r br!ng!ng y0u h0me safely, thank the c00k f0r a w0nderful d!nner and thank the guy wh0 cleans y0ur w!nd0ws. Als0 thank the ma!lman f0r br!ng!ng y0u y0ur ma!ls, thank the p0l!ceman f0r mak!ng y0ur place safe and thank G0d f0r be!ng al!ve.
News !s stressful. Get less 0f !t. S0me pe0ple just can't start the!r day w!th0ut the!r da!ly d0se 0f news. Try and th!nk ab0ut !t, 99% 0f the news we hear 0r read !s bad news. Start!ng the day w!th bad news d0es n0t seem t0 be a sens!ble th!ng t0 d0.
A rel!g!0us c0nnect!0n !s als0 rec0mmended. Be!ng part 0f a rel!g!0us gr0up w!th !ts s!ng!ng, sacraments, chant!ng, prayers and med!tat!0ns f0ster !nner peace.
Manage y0ur t!me. T!me !s !nvaluable and t00 !mp0rtant t0 waste. T!me management can be v!ewed as a l!st 0f rules that !nv0lves schedul!ng, sett!ng g0als, plann!ng, creat!ng l!sts 0f th!ngs t0 d0 and pr!0r!t!z!ng. These are the c0re bas!cs 0f t!me management that sh0uld be underst00d t0 devel0p an eff!c!ent pers0nal t!me management sk!ll. These bas!c sk!lls can be f!ne tuned further t0 !nclude the f!ner p0!nts 0f each sk!ll that can g!ve y0u that extra reserve t0 make the results y0u des!re.
Laugh and laugh heart!ly everyday. Heard a g00d j0ke? Tell y0ur fr!ends 0r fam!ly ab0ut !t. As they als0 say -'Laughter !s the best med!c!ne'.
Express y0ur feel!ngs, affect!0ns, fr!endsh!p and pass!0n t0 pe0ple ar0und y0u. They w!ll m0st l!kely rec!pr0cate y0ur act!0ns. Try n0t t0 keep pent up anger 0f frustrat!0ns, th!s !s bad f0r y0ur health. !nstead f!nd ways 0f express!ng them !n a way that w!ll n0t cause m0re !njury 0r hurt t0 any0ne.
W0rk!ng hard br!ngs tremend0us pers0nal sat!sfact!0n. !t g!ves a feel!ng 0f be!ng c0mpetent !n f!n!sh!ng 0ur tasks. Acc0mpl!shments are necessary f0r all 0f us, they g!ve us a sense 0f value. W0rk 0n th!ngs that y0u feel w0rthy 0f y0ur t!me.
Learn!ng !s a j0yful exerc!se. Try and learn s0meth!ng new everyday. Learn!ng als0 makes us expand and br0aden 0ur h0r!z0ns. And c0uld als0 g!ve us m0re 0pp0rtun!t!es !n the future.
Run, j0g, walk and d0 0ther th!ngs that y0ur b0dy was made f0r. Feel al!ve.
Av0!d exp0sure t0 negat!ve elements l!ke l0ud n0!ses, t0x!ns and hazard0us places.
These are the few s!mple th!ngs y0u can d0 everyday t0 be happy.
And always remember the qu0te fr0m Abraham L!nc0ln, he says that, "M0st pe0ple are ab0ut as happy as they make up the!r m!nds t0 be."
Posted by kun Akinari at 19:03
Thursday, 16 July 2015
At f!rst glance, !t w0uld seem that p0s!t!ve th!nk!ng and Attent!0n Def!c!t D!s0rder (ADD) have n0th!ng t0 d0 w!th 0ne an0ther. But many 0f us w!th ADD devel0p negat!ve th!nk!ng patterns because we bec0me frustrated by 0ur challenges and frequent feel!ngs 0f be!ng 0verwhelmed. Th!s negat!ve 0utl00k then makes !t even harder f0r us t0 manage th0se challenges and m0ve f0rward.
Pract!c!ng p0s!t!ve th!nk!ng all0ws pe0ple w!th ADD t0 f0cus 0n 0ur strengths and acc0mpl!shments, wh!ch !ncreases happ!ness and m0t!vat!0n. Th!s, !n turn, all0ws us t0 spend m0re t!me mak!ng pr0gress, and less t!me feel!ng d0wn and stuck. The f0ll0w!ng t!ps pr0v!de pract!cal suggest!0ns that y0u can use t0 help y0u sh!ft !nt0 m0re p0s!t!ve th!nk!ng patterns:
1. Take G00d Care 0f Y0urself
!t's much eas!er t0 be p0s!t!ve when y0u are eat!ng well, exerc!s!ng, and gett!ng en0ugh rest.
2. Rem!nd Y0urself 0f the Th!ngs Y0u Are Grateful F0r
Stresses and challenges d0n't seem qu!te as bad when y0u are c0nstantly rem!nd!ng y0urself 0f the th!ngs that are r!ght !n l!fe. Tak!ng just 60 sec0nds a day t0 st0p and apprec!ate the g00d th!ngs w!ll make a huge d!fference.
3. L00k f0r the Pr00f !nstead 0f Mak!ng Assumpt!0ns
A fear 0f n0t be!ng l!ked 0r accepted s0met!mes leads us t0 assume that we kn0w what 0thers are th!nk!ng, but 0ur fears are usually n0t real!ty. !f y0u have a fear that a fr!end 0r fam!ly member's bad m00d !s due t0 s0meth!ng y0u d!d, 0r that y0ur c0-w0rkers are secretly g0ss!p!ng ab0ut y0u when y0u turn y0ur back, speak up and ask them. D0n't waste t!me w0rry!ng that y0u d!d s0meth!ng wr0ng unless y0u have pr00f that there !s s0meth!ng t0 w0rry ab0ut.
4. Refra!n fr0m Us!ng Abs0lutes
Have y0u ever t0ld a partner "Y0u're ALWAYS late!" 0r c0mpla!ned t0 a fr!end "Y0u NEVER call me!"? Th!nk!ng and speak!ng !n abs0lutes l!ke 'always' and 'never' makes the s!tuat!0n seem w0rse than !t !s, and pr0grams y0ur bra!n !nt0 bel!ev!ng that certa!n pe0ple are !ncapable 0f del!ver!ng.
5. Detach Fr0m Negat!ve Th0ughts
Y0ur th0ughts can't h0ld any p0wer 0ver y0u !f y0u d0n't judge them. !f y0u n0t!ce y0urself hav!ng a negat!ve th0ught, detach fr0m !t, w!tness !t, and d0n't f0ll0w !t.
6. Squash the "ANTs"
!n h!s b00k "Change Y0ur Bra!n, Change Y0ur L!fe," Dr. Dan!el Amen talks ab0ut "ANTs" - Aut0mat!c Negat!ve Th0ughts. These are the bad th0ughts that are usually react!0nary, l!ke "Th0se pe0ple are laugh!ng, they must be talk!ng ab0ut me," 0r "The b0ss wants t0 see me? !t must be bad!" When y0u n0t!ce these th0ughts, real!ze that they are n0th!ng m0re than ANTs and squash them!
7. Pract!ce L0v!n', T0uch!n' & Squeez!n' (Y0ur Fr!ends and Fam!ly)
Y0u d0n't have t0 be an expert t0 kn0w the benef!ts 0f a g00d hug. P0s!t!ve phys!cal c0ntact w!th fr!ends, l0ved 0nes, and even pets, !s an !nstant p!ck-me-up. 0ne research study 0n th!s subject had a wa!tress t0uch s0me 0f her cust0mers 0n the arm as she handed them the!r checks. She rece!ved h!gher t!ps fr0m these cust0mers than fr0m the 0nes she d!dn't t0uch!
8. !ncrease Y0ur S0c!al Act!v!ty
By !ncreas!ng s0c!al act!v!ty, y0u decrease l0nel!ness. Surr0und y0urself w!th healthy, happy pe0ple, and the!r p0s!t!ve energy w!ll affect y0u !n a p0s!t!ve way!
9. V0lunteer f0r an 0rgan!zat!0n, 0r Help an0ther Pers0n
Every0ne feels g00d after help!ng. Y0u can v0lunteer y0ur t!me, y0ur m0ney, 0r y0ur res0urces. The m0re p0s!t!ve energy y0u put 0ut !nt0 the w0rld, the m0re y0u w!ll rece!ve !n return.
10. Use Pattern !nterrupts t0 C0mbat Rum!nat!0n
!f y0u f!nd y0urself rum!nat!ng, a great way t0 st0p !t !s t0 !nterrupt the pattern and f0rce y0urself t0 d0 s0meth!ng c0mpletely d!fferent. Rum!nat!0n !s l!ke hyper-f0cus 0n s0meth!ng negat!ve. !t's never pr0duct!ve, because !t's n0t rat!0nal 0r s0lut!0n-0r!ented, !t's just excess!ve w0rry. Try chang!ng y0ur phys!cal env!r0nment - g0 f0r a walk 0r s!t 0uts!de. Y0u c0uld als0 call a fr!end, p!ck up a b00k, 0r turn 0n s0me mus!c.
When !t c0mes t0 the c0rp0rate w0rld, pr0t0c0l !s pretty much the rel!g!0n. T0 kn0w the th!ngs needed t0 d0 are the bas!cs 0f pr0duct!v!ty, but !nteract!0n and hav!ng a steady m!nd makes up the ent!re th!ng t0 true pr0duct!v!ty. There are th0se wh0 seem t0 w0rk well even under pressure, but they're unc0mm0n 0nes and we are human and !mperfect. T0 get these l!ttle th!ngs l!ke stress under 0ur sk!ns w0n't s0lve 0ur pr0blems. S0met!mes !t takes a b!t 0f c0urage t0 adm!t that we're turn!ng t0 be w0rkah0l!cs than tell 0urselves that we're n0t d0!ng 0ur best.
Posted by kun Akinari at 19:01